Immunology === https://urlin.us/2tmccL
Immunology is a branch of medicine and biology that covers the medical study of immune systems in all organisms. In such we can see there is a difference of human immunology and comparative immunology in veterinary medicine and animal biosciences.
The term was coined by Russian biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, who advanced studies on immunology and received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1908. He pinned small thorns into starfish larvae and noticed unusual cells surrounding the thorns. This was the active response of the body trying to maintain its integrity. It was Mechnikov who first observed the phenomenon of phagocytosis, in which the body defends itself against a foreign body.
Classical immunology ties in with the fields of epidemiology and medicine. It studies the relationship between the body systems, pathogens, and immunity. The earliest written mention of immunity can be traced back to the plague of Athens in 430 BCE. Thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time. Many other ancient societies have references to this phenomenon, but it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries before the concept developed into scientific theory.
The study of the molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system has been divided into a more primitive innate immune system and, in vertebrates, an acquired or adaptive immune system. The latter is further divided into humoral (or antibody) and cell-mediated components.
It is now getting clear that the immune responses contribute to the development of many common disorders not traditionally viewed as immunologic, including metabolic, cardiovascular, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Besides, there are direct implications of the immune system in the infectious diseases (tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, pneumonia, dysentery, and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in the fields of modern medicine, biomedical research, and biotechnology.
Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system (failure, aberrant action, and malignant growth of the cellular elements of the system). It also involves diseases of other systems, where immune reactions play a part in the pathology and clinical features.
The study of the interaction of the immune system with cancer cells can lead to diagnostic tests and therapies with which to find and fight cancer. The immunology concerned with physiological reaction characteristic of the immune state.
This area of the immunology is devoted to the study of immunological aspects of the reproductive process including fetus acceptance. The term has also been used by fertility clinics to address fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages, premature deliveries and dangerous complications such as pre-eclampsia.
The immune system is a complex system of structures and processes that has evolved to protect us from disease. Molecular and cellular components make up the immune system. The function of these components is divided up into nonspecific mechanisms, those which are innate to an organism, and responsive responses, which are adaptive to specific pathogens. Fundamental or classical immunology involves studying the components that make up the innate and adaptive immune system.
Veterinary immunology is a branch of Immunology dedicated to improving animal health. Like humans, animals also suffer from diseases caused either when organisms try to invade their body, or when their immune system does not function properly. Wild, domestic, and farm animals are commonly exposed to a whole range of dangerous bacteria, viruses and parasites, which threaten their welfare. A